Ecomuseus e Museus Comunitários no Brasil: estudo exploratório de possibilidades museológicas
Suzy da Silva Santos
Since the 1960's, with the emergence of the new paradigm of socio-cultural democracy, several criticisms were directed at Museums and Museology and this process triggered the emergence of an international museological movement called New Museology, made official in 1984 at the I Atelier International Ecomuseums / New Museology, held in Quebec (Canada). The New Museology emphasized the social vocation of museums and proposed several theoretical and methodological renewals to the established museological field. It is possible to observe repercussions of this movement in Brazil mainly from the decade of 1980, with the redemocratization of the country. Parallel to the renovation of already consolidated museums, new museological experiences are emerging, mainly called museums community and ecomuseums, which aim, through collective curation and the promotion of active, popular, participatory, community and experimental practices, the valorization, preservation and diffusion of local Heritage (Natural, Cultural, Material and Immaterial), to ensure that the museum acts as a space for representation and to promote, from the contextualisation of heritage, understanding, questioning, awareness and transformation of reality. The current research project aimed: revise terms and concepts related to New Museology and this new typology of museums in relevant bibliography, relating and confronting diverse authors; to carry out a cartography of community museums, ecomuseums and initiatives of memory and community-based heritage that is understood as a museum in the Brazilian context; elaborate a panorama synthesis for a better understanding of the diversity of this typology of museums.